Skip to content

Europe’s most polluting power plants, including many large coal-fired power stations, will be forced to clean up or close down thanks to new EU rules adopted today. The revised standards demand reductions in toxic emissions, yet businesses and governments appear unprepared.

EU-wide compliance with the new rules could cost as much as €15.4bn, and 82% of coal capacity expected to be online in 2021 is currently failing to meet the minimum standards. With coal already in dramatic decline, the uncertainty created by stricter limits on pollution leaves closure as the only logical end for coal plants[1].

The new standards[2] include tighter rules for emissions of nitrous oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and tiny pieces of harmful dust known as ‘particulate matter’ (PM). These toxic substances are linked to a host of health and environmental issues including the development of asthma in children and polluting of Europe’s air and water.

132 cities in 23 countries are breaching EU laws on air quality[3]. Worsening urban air pollution has been described as a ‘public health crisis’ and has led to growing demands from communities for urgent action. Ensuring large power plants use the best available techniques to reduce pollution will lead to significant reductions in emissions and have a positive effect on air quality across Europe, including in cities.

The new rules were adopted despite the opposition of major coal-addicted economies. At the time of the vote in April, Germany was heavily criticised by health, environmental and climate groups for joining a ‘toxic bloc’ of eastern European countries in opposing the new limits[4].

Today’s move provides a safety net of minimum expectations for Europe’s worst polluters, but more importantly it signals that the end for coal in Europe is looming. EU governments now have a maximum of four years to adapt their energy systems to the new limits and ensure workers and communities facing an uncertain economic future are empowered to transition to new livelihoods.

Julia Gogolewska, Senior Policy Officer at the Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL): 

“Thousands of premature deaths from coal pollution can be avoided if these rules are applied, but while they hasten the inevitable, phasing out coal entirely is the only way to maximise the lives saved from air pollution and climate impacts.”

Prof Barbara Hoffmann, incoming Chair of the Environment and Health Committee of the European Respiratory Society:

“Introducing and fully enforcing Best Available Techniques standards through the EU’s Industrial Emissions Directive offers a clear means of protecting our health and reducing the level of harmful pollutants and gases in the atmosphere. Applying these standards will also contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions responsible for climate change.”

Christian Schaible, EEB Industrial Production Manager and a member of the Technical Working Group that helped to draft the revised standards:

“These new requirements will help speed up the energy transition, but not all plants will have the will, the financing, or even the access to the equipment needed to reduce pollution levels. Investments in plants that are already essentially on life support in order to meet climate commitments simply doesn’t make sense. Plants that commit to close could, under strict conditions and in exchange for reduced operation, be granted exceptions in the short-term, but Europe will have to have phased out coal completely by 2030.”

Notes to editors: 

The new standards are set in the BAT (Best Available Techniques) Conclusions of the revised LCP BREF (Large Combustion Plants Best Available Techniques Reference Document) that was adopted today and will be published in the Official Journal of the European Union shortly.

The potential for the new standards to reduce the negative health impacts of coal in Europe were revealed in a joint report published last October: ‘Lifting Europe’s Dark Cloud: How cutting coal saves lives’.

Check the potential impact of the new limits on coal plants in your country.

The new standards may seem much stricter, but are in fact based on what is already being achieved by other plants across Europe and around the world. Many European plants are responsible for excessive pollution because they have not been required to invest in ‘abatement’ techniques to reduce their emissions.

For more information about the LCP BREF, see Our Q&A guide: What is the LCP BREF?


[1] Report on Hard Coal/Lignite Fired Power Plants in EU28 by DNV GL for the European Climate Foundation. 16 June 2017.

[2] Commission to review permits of Large Combustion Plants, European Commission Press Release, 31 July 2017

[3] Commission warns Germany, France, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom of continued air pollution breaches, European Commission Press Release, 15 Feb 2017

[4] Cleaner air the winner after Germany fails to block new EU rules, EEB Press Release, 28 Apr 2017


For further information, please contact:

Anton Lazarus ( / +32 2 790 88 18)
Communications Officer – Industrial Production
European Environmental Bureau

About the organisations behind the statement: 

The European Environmental Bureau is the largest network of environmental citizens’ organisations in Europe. It currently consists of over 130 member organisations in more than 30 countries (virtually all EU Member States plus some accession and neighbouring countries), including a growing number of European networks, and representing some 15 million individual members and supporters. The EEB stand for environmental justice, sustainable development and participatory democracy. Our aim is to ensure the EU secures a healthy environment and rich biodiversity for all.

The European Respiratory Society (ERS) is an international organisation that brings together physicians, healthcare professionals, scientists and other experts working in respiratory medicine. We are one of the leading medical organisations in the respiratory field, with a growing membership representing over 140 countries. Our mission is to promote lung health in order to alleviate suffering from disease and drive standards for respiratory medicine globally. Science, education and advocacy are at the core of everything we do.

The Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL) is a leading European not-for-profit organisation addressing how the environment affects health in the European Union (EU). We demonstrate how policy changes can help protect health and enhance people’s quality of life. HEAL has more than 70 member organisations, representing networks of health professionals, non-profit health insurers, patients, citizens, women, youth and environmental experts working at the international, EU, national and local level. Together, we help to bring independent expertise and evidence from the health community to different decision-making processes.

WWF’s mission is to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by:
• conserving the world’s biological diversity
• ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable
• promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption

The European Policy Office contributes to the achievement of WWF’s global mission by leading the WWF network to shape EU policies impacting on the European and global environment.

Climate Action Network (CAN) Europe is Europe’s largest coalition working on climate and energy issues. With over 130 member organisations in more than 30 European countries – representing over 44 million citizens – CAN Europe works to prevent dangerous climate change and promote sustainable climate and energy policy in Europe.

Sandbag is an evidence-based non-profit organisation to help European decarbonisation. We focus on phasing out coal generation across Europe, getting a higher carbon price through EU ETS reform, and working on long term ways to decarbonise energy intensive industries.

Back To Top